Journal of Extension Education <p><strong>The <em>Journal of Extension Education (JEE)</em> is a peer-reviewed open-access journal in the field of extension education published by the Extension Education Society (EES).</strong></p>The journal is published in both <em>print</em> and <em>online</em><em> </em>versions. [<strong>Print ISSN: 0971-3123; Online ISSN: 2456-1282</strong>]. The CODEN assigned to JEE is <strong><em>JEEOBM</em> .</strong><br /><p><strong><br /></strong></p> Extension Education Society (EES) en-US Journal of Extension Education 0971-3123 <p><span>Authors who publish with JEE agree to the following terms:</span><br /><br /></p><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant JEE right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ul></ol><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ul></ol><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ul></ol><p>Extension Education Society</p><p><a href=""></a></p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p><p>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</p> From the Editor's Desk <p><strong>This editorial of Journal of Extension Education , 34 (4) deals with various forms of aberrations in research misconduct.</strong></p> D PUTHIRA PRATHAP Copyright (c) 2022 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 34 4 6893 6893 10.26725/JEE.2022.4.34.6893 Functional Roles of Farmer Producer Companies: the Stakeholders’ Perception <p><em>This study explored the perception of stakeholders of selected Farmer Producer Companies (FPC) of</em><br /><em>Kerala, India, on the functional role of such companies in the livelihood betterment of farmers. Five roles </em><em>were identified and ranked based on the percentage scores for understanding the perception of the role of </em><em>FPCs. The five roles analyzed included facilitate development of member farmers, increase the cultivation of </em><em>particular crop, identify needs of farmers and conduct trainings/ exposure visits, delivery of services to farmers </em><em>and creation of more employment among farmers. Based on results it was inferred that stakeholders from </em><em>various FPCs in the state identified delivery of services to farmers as the most important functional role of </em><em>FPCs. This was followed by the role of farmer development facilitation which was agreed by over 75 percent of </em><em>all categories. Creation of more employment opportunities for farmers, and impart of trainings and exposure </em><em>visits to them was given comparatively less importance by all the stakeholders. The least important role </em><em>identified was increasing the crop cultivation.</em></p> Akhil Ajith Binoo P Bonny Copyright (c) 2022 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 34 4 6894 6898 10.26725/JEE.2022.4.34.6894-6898 Understanding the Information Network among Farmers through Content Analysis of Farmers’ Facebook Groups <p><em>Facebook groups have emerged as a powerful tool for connecting individuals with shared interests, and the agriculture sector is no exception. Examining the significance of Facebook’s involvement in agricultural extension within India is essential because of the nation’s significant agricultural industry, growing digital presence, and the necessity for prompt and precise information distribution. This research aims to investigate the origins of the Bengali Facebook groups, the profiles of members and administrators, and the manner in which information is shared through posts within these groups. The study also seeks to delve into the broad themes of these posts and their specific focus on agricultural topics, including general agriculture, identification of plant diseases, crop varieties, recommended practices, and more. Furthermore, this study analyses the content of posts concerning agricultural operations, implements, agricultural products, and livestock. Out of 995 Facebook groups, 84 core agricultural groups and 24 Bengali groups were purposively sampled. Among the 1442 posts, 206 were screened randomly for the study. Results revealed that 50 percent of these groups emerged during the lockdown period and the most discussed agricultural operation in these groups was ‘plant protection measures’ . The study suggests that Facebook groups should be mainstreamed by public and private extension agencies to reach even those farmers with low levels of formal education.</em></p> Shehanaz Alam Debabrata Basu Copyright (c) 2022 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 34 4 6899 6905 10.26725/JEE.2022.4.34.6899-6905 Entrepreneurial Attributes of Floriculture Farmers <p><em>Floriculture has emerged as an important agribusiness, providing employment opportunities and entrepreneurship in both urban and rural areas. This study calculated the entrepreneurial attributes of floriculture farmers in Nashik, Maharashtra, India were calculated based on seven parameters viz., innovativeness, achievement motivation, economic motivation, decision making ability, leadership ability, risk orientation and management orientation. Majority of the flower growers belonged to medium entrepreneurial category. There was a highly significant and positive relationship of entrepreneurial attributes of respondents with Annual Income, Mass Media Exposure and Extension Agency Contact.</em></p> Darshana Kapadnis Niteen Jaysing Thoke Copyright (c) 2022 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 34 4 6906 6909 10.26725/JEE.2022.4.34.6906-6909 Unearthing the Knowledge of Natural Farming through Content Analysis of English YouTube Videos <p><em>Amidst the vast realm of digital content, YouTube covers agricultural videos that exhibit the marvels of </em><em>natural farming. This content analysis, conducted in 2023, encompasses a comprehensive synopsis of YouTube </em><em>videos communicated in English on natural farming. By employing a meticulously prepared checklist, the </em><em>study delved into both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the videos. A total of 150 videos were selected </em><em>through systematic random sampling, assuring recurrent themes and subthemes. An accurate and consistent </em><em>analysis was ensured by conducting intra-coder reliability. The analysis includes categorization in respect of</em><br /><em>type of enterprise, type of crop, place of program, shot type, Type of operational practices, type of manure, type </em><em>of mulching, type of compost, type of soil water conservation techniques, type of pest management techniques, </em><em>the theme of the channels, number of subscribers, and type of content. The analysis focused on YouTube’s </em><em>coverage of promoting knowledge about natural farming practices by serving as a comprehensive resource for </em><em>empowering and motivating people on their sustainable agricultural journeys.</em></p> ANANTA MANDAL SOUMYADEEP THAKUR DEBABRATA BASU Copyright (c) 2022 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 34 4 6910 6919 10.26725/JEE.2022.4.34.6910-6919 Rural Community Teachers’ Awareness and Attitude on Learning Challenges <p><em>In rural landscapes, teachers are unsung education heroes, facing challenges like limited professional </em><em>growth, inadequate infrastructure, and the need to innovate teaching methods for diverse student needs. They </em><em>shape their communities’ education through adaptability and evolution. A September 2022 study conducted </em><em>in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu surveyed 149 rural primary school teachers, using self-developed </em><em>questionnaires on background information, awareness of learning challenges, and attitudes toward them. </em><em>Reliability, measured with Cronbach’s Alpha, showed scores of 0.829 for awareness and 0.854 for attitudes. </em><em>Results revealed that most teachers had moderate awareness, with some displaying low awareness and many</em><br /><em>holding neutral attitudes, which could turn unfavorable over time. Linear regression highlighted associations </em><em>with age, experience, and class type. Experience emerged as the main predictor for both awareness and </em><em>attitude, implying that more experience leads to improved awareness and attitude. These findings can guide </em><em>stakeholders in supporting rural educators, benefitting students across geographical boundaries.</em></p> Rajkumari S Ramya Bhaskar Copyright (c) 2022 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 34 4 6920 6931 10.26725/JEE.2022.4.34.6920-6931 Problems and Complexities in Rural Schools of the Himalayan Region: Challenges for Community Development <p><em>The educational system of rural areas in India especially in the Himalayan region, is facing various</em><br /><em>problems like infrastructure, transportation, communication, and quality education. In the present paper, the </em><em>focus has been given to identifying the problems and challenges faced by rural schools and factors affecting the </em><em>quality of education in Himalayan region with particular reference to the Paddar sub-division in Jammu and </em><em>Kashmir Union Territory. Using purposive sampling technique, data were collected from 19 schools, with 180 </em><em>students as a sample. The findings of the study revealed that low educational qualifications of both parents, </em><em>low socioeconomic status and low occupational status of parents were the major factors affecting the quality </em><em>of education. Natural obstacles like harsh winters, heavy snowfall, a high mountainous area, and a lack of </em><em>transportation also hinder the progress of education. Hence, there is a need to bring structural changes in the </em><em>rural schools of Jammu &amp; Kashmir.</em></p> S.K. Panda Ravail Singh Copyright (c) 2022 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 34 4 6932 6937 10.26725/JEE.2022.4.34.6932-6937